The compressor – Functionality & Structure
A compressor * is used to machine different gases. One calls it therefore also as a compressor. So-called reciprocating compressors are common compressors in the hobby and home area. Similar to an air pump or car engine reciprocating compressors work alternately between suction and compression of the gas. The piston sucks in needed air and presses it together in a housing which tightly surrounds it.
Compression is used to reduce the volume of gases. The aspirated gas volume is minimized by the compressor by its operating pressure. This process of compression causes the gas in the pressure to rise, the gases are also heated.
Construction of the compressor
The main component of a best air compressor is its engine, which drives the compressor. Common usage often refers to the compressor itself as a compressor, although it is only part of the compressor.
The compressed air from the compressor is not discharged directly. A pressure vessel into which the compressed gas is pumped, distinguishes the compressor substantially from the air pump and engine and has several advantages.
For example, the pressure vessel can store larger amounts of air than the piston of the compressor promotes throughout. This air can then be expelled as a total amount. Nor does the compressor motor have to be in continuous operation.
A pressure gauge in the superstructure of the compressor is used to monitor the pressure in the boiler of the compressor. When operating pressure is reached, it is possible to use the respective tool.
Elements of a reciprocating compressor
Main elements of a reciprocating compressor, In addition, the compressor can also react to the boiler pressure. If the pressure drops below the set minimum pressure, the compressor’s engine starts to fill the compressor boiler sufficiently with compressed air. When maximum pressure is reached, the pump is stopped. In the case of a dangerous overpressure, a safety valve in the structure of the compressor opens to release the pressure.
How does the reciprocating compressor work?
Before we look at the operation of a reciprocating compressor *, let’s take a look at its structure. The following section is used for this purpose.
Construction of a piston compressor
Inside a cylinder, a piston moves back and forth. A seal seals the piston towards the cylinder wall. The retraction of the piston sucks in air through the inlet valve and advancement closes this valve again. Thus, the air is compressed. An emission of air takes place through the exhaust valve of the reciprocating compressor.
How a piston compressor works: suction & compression
The most commonly used compressors include, in addition to the reciprocating compressor and the screw compressor. It differs significantly in structure and function, but should not be considered in detail on this page.
Construction of a screw compressor
The operation of the compressor: About operating pressure and delivery quantity
Compressors are characterized by their pressure and the achievable delivery quantity. The delivery quantity is defined as the volume of air delivered per time unit. The usual unit of delivery is m3 / min, or liters / min in the case of smaller plants.
Misleading, although often in use, is the definition of theoretical suction power as the product of displacement and speed. By neglecting the volumetric filling level, no statement is made about the actual flow rate.
Relevant characteristics of the function of the compressor
Important parameters of the reciprocating compressor and thus the functioning of the compressor, are delivery quantity, operating pressure, pressure ratio and degree of delivery.
While the delivery quantity describes the volume of the expelled gas per unit of time, the operating pressure is defined as the achievable excess pressure.
The pressure ratio is determined by the ratio of final pressure to suction pressure and the degree of delivery shows the relationship of conveyed to theoretically achievable volume flow.
To compare different compressors *, which differ in design, operating points or the operation of the compressor, the standard volume flow is used. This converts the volume flow of the compressor to standard conditions with regard to temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, the individual function of the compressor is comparable.